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2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference – China injection plastic machine – small plastic inje – Business
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Background and lead up Negotiating position of the European Union On 28 January 2009 the European Commission released a position paper Towards a comprehensive climate agreement in Copenhagen The position paper addresses three key challenges targets and actions financing of low carbon development and adaptation and building an effective global carbon market Leading by example the European Union had committed to implementing binding legislation even without a satisfactory deal in Copenhagen Last December the European Union revised its carbon allowances system called the Emissions Trading Scheme ETS designed for the post Kyoto period after 2013 This new stage of the system aims at further reducing greenhouse gases emitted in Europe in a binding way and at showing the commitments the EU had already done before the Copenhagen meeting To avoid carbon leakageelocation of companies in other regions not complying with similar legislationhe EU Commission will foresee that sectors exposed to international competition should be granted some free allocations of CO2 emissions provided that they are at least at the same level of a benchmark Other sectors should buy such credits on an international market Energy intensive industries in Europe have advocated for this benchmark system in order to keep funds in investment capacities for low carbon products rather than for speculations The European chemical industry claims here the need to be closer to the needs of citizens in a sustainable way To comply with such commitments for a low carbon economy this requires competitiveness and innovations The French Minister for Ecology Jean Louis Borloo pushes the creation of the Global Environment Organisation as France s main institutional contribution to offer a powerful alternative to the UNEP Official pre Copenhagen negotiation meetings A draft negotiating text for finalisation at Copenhagen was publicly released It was discussed at a series of meetings before Copenhagen Bonn second negotiating meeting Delegates from 183 countries met in Bonn from 1 to 12 June 2009 The purpose was to discuss key negotiating texts These served as the basis for the international climate change agreement at Copenhagen At the conclusion the Ad Hoc Working Group under the Kyoto Protocol AWG KP negotiating group was still far away from the emission reduction range that has been set out by science to avoid the worst ravages of climate change a minus 25 to minus 40 reduction below 1990 levels by 2020 The AWG KP still needs to decide on the aggregate emission reduction target for industrialised countries along with individual targets for each country Progress was made in gaining clarification of the issues of concern to parties and including these concerns in the updated draft of the negotiating text Seventh session Bangkok The first part of the seventh session of the AWG LCA was held in Bangkok Thailand from Monday 28 September at the United Nations Conference Centre UNCC of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific UNESCAP Bangkok Thailand Barcelona The resumed session was held in Barcelona Spain from 2 to 6 November 2009 Thereafter the AWG LCA met to conclude its work at its eighth session concurrently with the fifteenth session of the Conference of the Parties which opened in Copenhagen on 7 December 2009 Listing of proposed actions Proposed changes in absolute emissions Area 19902020 Reference base Norway 30 to 40 CO2e w o LULUCF Japan 25 EU 20 to 30 CO2e w o LULUCF 20 CO2e w LULUCF 30 Russia 20 to 25 South Africa 18 Iceland 15 CO2e w LULUCF New Zealand 10 to 20 CO2e w COP15 LULUCF Australia 4 to 24 CO2e w o LULUCF 15 to 33 CO2e w human LULUCF United States 4 CO2e w o LULUCF Canada 3 CO2e LULUCF undecided Brazil 5 to 1 8 Area 20052020 Reference base China 40 to 45 per GDP CO2 emissions intensity India 20 to 25 per GDP CO2e emissions intensity During the conference some countries stated what actions they were proposing to take if a binding agreement was achieved In the end no such agreement was reached and the actions will instead be debated in 2010 Listing by country or political union Sections in alphabetic order table according to higher objectives Australia To cut carbon emissions by 25 below 2000 levels by 2020 if the world agrees to an ambitious global deal to stabilise levels of CO2e to 450 160 ppm or lower To cut carbon emissions by 15 below 2000 levels by 2020 if there is an agreement where major developing economies commit to substantially restrain emissions and advanced economies take on commitments comparable to Australia To cut carbon social commissions emissions by 5 below 2000 levels by 2020 unconditionally It is clearly stated in proceedings from the Australian Senate and policy statements from the government that the Australian emission reductions include land use land use change and forestry LULUCF with the form of inclusion remaining undecided and whilst acknowledging that they are subject to the forming of accounting guidelines from this Copenhagen conference In contention is the Australian Government s preference for the removal of non human induced LULUCF emissions and perhaps their abatement from the account such as from lightning induced bushfires and the subsequent natural carbon sequestering regrowth Using Kyoto accounting guidelines these proposals are equivalent to an emissions cut of 24 14 and 4 below 1990 levels by 2020 respectively Raw use of UNFCCC CO2e data including LULUCF as defined during the conference by the UNFCCC for the years 2000 404 392 Tg CO2e and 1990 453 794 Tg CO2e leads to apparent emissions cuts of 33 303 294 Tg CO2e 25 343 733 Tg CO2e and 15 384 172 Tg CO2e respectively Belarus To reduce emissions by 5 10 below 1990 levels by 2020 Brazil To cut emissions by 3842 below projected 2020 levels by that same year This is equivalent to a change to emissions to between 5 above and 1 8 below 1990 levels by 2020 original research Canada To cut carbon emissions by 20 below 2006 levels by 2020 This is equivalent to 3 below 1990 levels by 2020 The three most populous provinces disagree with the federal government goal and announced more ambitious targets on their jurisdictions Quebec Ontario and British Columbia announced respectively 20 15 and 14 reduction target below their 1990 levels while Alberta is expecting a 58 increase in emissions People s Republic of China To cut CO2 emissions intensity by 4045 below 2005 levels by 2020 Costa Rica To become carbon neutral by 2021 European Union To cut greenhouse gas emissions by 30 including LULUCF below 1990 levels by 2020 if an international agreement is reached committing other developed countries and the more advanced developing nations to comparable emission reductions To cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20 excluding LULUCF below 1990 levels by 2020 unconditionally Member country Germany has offered to reduce its CO2 emissions by 40 below 1990 levels by 2020 Iceland To cut carbon emissions by 15 below 1990 levels by 2020 India To cut carbon emissions intensity by 2025 below 2005 levels by 2020 Indonesia To reduce carbon emissions by 26 by 2020 based on business as usual levels With enhanced international assistance President of Indonesia Dr Yudhoyono offered an increased reduction of 41 by 2020 based on business as usual levels Japan To cut greenhouse gas emissions by 25 below 1990 levels by 2020 Kazakhstan To cut greenhouse gas emissions by 15 below 1992 levels by 2020 Liechtenstein To cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20 30 below 1990 levels by 2020 Maldives To become carbon neutral by 2019 Mexico To reduce emissions 50 by 2050 below 2000 levels Monaco To cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20 below 1990 levels by 2020 New Zealand To reduce emissions between 10 to 20 below 1990 levels by 2020 if a global agreement is secured that limits carbon dioxide equivalent CO2e to 450 160 ppm and temperature increases to 2C effective rules on forestry and New Zealand having access to international carbon markets Norway To reduce carbon emissions by 30 below 1990 levels by 2020 During his speech at the conference Prime Minister of Norway Jens Stoltenberg offered a 40 cut in emissions below 1990 levels by 2020 if it could contribute to an agreement Philippines To reduce emissions 5 below 1990 levels Russia Prior to the meeting Russia pledged to reduce emissions between 20 to 25 below 1990 levels by 2020 if a global agreement is reached committing other countries to comparable emission reductions This target had not been announced to the UNFCCC Secretariat before the COP 15 meeting In the COP 15 negotiations Russia only pledged to make a 10 to 15 reduction below 1990 levels by 2020 as part of a commitment to the Kyoto Protocol but said that it would reduce emissions by 20 to 25 as part of an agreement on long term cooperative action Singapore To reduce emissions by 16 by 2020 based on business as usual levels South Africa To cut emissions by 34 below current expected levels by 2020 This is equivalent to an absolute emissions cut of about 18 original research below 1990 levels by 2020 South Korea To reduce emissions unilaterally by 4 below 2005 levels by 2020 Switzerland To reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 30 below 1990 levels by 2020 Ukraine To reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 below 1990 levels by 2020 United States of America To social commissions cut greenhouse gas emissions by 17 below 2005 levels by 2020 42 by 2030 and 83 by 2050 Raw use of UNFCCC CO2e data excluding LULUCF as defined during the conference by the UNFCCC for the years 2005 7802 213 Tg CO2e and 1990 6084 490 Tg CO2e leads to apparent emissions cuts of about 4 5878 24 Tg CO2e 33 4107 68 Tg CO2e and 80 1203 98 Tg CO2e respectively Technology measures UNEP At the fifth Magdeburg Environmental Forum held from 3 to 4 July 2008 in Magdeburg Germany United Nations Environment Programme called for the establishment of infrastructure for electric vehicles At this international conference 250 high ranking representatives from industry science politics and non government organizations discussed solutions for future road transportation under the motto of Sustainable Mobility United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009 the Post 2012 CO2 Agenda Technology Action Programs Technology Action Programs TAPs have been proposed as a means for organizing future technology efforts under the UNFCCC By creating programs for a set of adaptation and mitigation technologies the UNFCCC would send clear signals to the private and finance sector governments research institutions as well as citizens of the world looking for solutions to the climate problem Potential focus areas for TAPs include early warning systems expansion of salinity tolerant crops electric vehicles wind and solar energy efficient energy grid systems and other technologies Technology roadmaps will address barriers to technology transfer cooperative actions on technologies and key economic sectors and support implementation of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions NAMAs and National Adaptation Programmes of Action NAPAs Side Event on Technology Transfer The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation UNIDO and the Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNDESA have been assigned the task of co convening a process to support UN system wide coherence and international cooperation on climate change related technology development and transfer This COP15 Side Event will feature statements and input from the heads of UNDESA UNDP GEF WIPO UNIDO UNEP IRENA as well as the UN Foundation Relevant topics such as the following will be among the many issues discussed Technology Needs Assessments TNA The Poznan Strategic Programme on Technology Transfer UN ENERGY Regional Platforms and Renewable Energy Technologies Related public actions The Danish government and key industrial organizations have entered a public private partnership to promote Danish cleantech solutions The partnership Climate Consortium Denmark is an integrated part of the official portfolio of activities before during and after the COP15 There is also a European Conference for the Promotion of Local Actions to Combat Climate Change The entire morning session on 25 September was devoted to the Covenant of Mayors The Local Government Climate Lounge will be an advocacy and meeting space located directly in the COP 15 building at the heart of the negotiations The Conference Activism Demonstrators in Copenhagen The December 12 demonstration moving down Amagerbrogade Some small protests occurred during the first week of the conference A much larger march was held in Copenhagen on December 12 calling for a global agreement on climate Between 40 000 and 100 000 people attended 968 protesters were detained at the event including 19 who were arrested for carrying pocket knives and wearing masks during the demonstration Of these all but 13 were released without charge One police officer was injured by a rock and a protester was injured by fireworks Some protestors were kettled by police and detained for several hours without access to food water or toilets before being arrested and taken to a holding facility on coaches Protestors were said to be angry at the use of what they considered heavy handed police tactics Activists claimed that the police used wire taps undercover officers and pepper spray on people who had been detained The police said the measures were necessary to deal with organisations such as Never Trust A COP which stated on its website that it would consciously attack the structures supporting the COP15 Per Larsen the chief coordinating officer for the Copenhagen police force told the New York Times that it was surely the biggest police action we have ever had in Danish history An alternative conference Klimaforum09 was attended by 50 000 people during the conference Environmental activists from regions of the world most affected by climate change convened at Klimaforum09 with leaders such as Vandana Shiva founder of Navda
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